VirtualBox 好夥伴 – Vagrant 快速上手

介紹

需要建立測試環境時,通常我們會使用 VirtualBox,下載好相關作業系統的 ISO、設定記憶體、CPU 與網路相關資訊後再一步一步安裝,最後才可以開始設定我們需要的測試環境。
透過 Vagrant 我們可以將以上的繁瑣步驟化為一個設定檔,通過簡單的三行指令就可以建立好我們的測試環境、並且順利連線進去

vagrant init generic/rocky8
vagrant up
vagrant ssh

安裝

Vagrant 支援 macOS、Windows 以及各種發行版本的 Linux,可以通過以下連結進行安裝
Installing Vagrant | Vagrant by HashiCorp (vagrantup.com)

使用

vagrant 的基礎單位是 box,對應的其實就是 Docker Hub 中 Image 的概念
box 可以在這裡找到 Discover Vagrant Boxes – Vagrant Cloud (vagrantup.com)
舉例來說要使用 Rocky Linux 的 box,透過以下指令可以產生預設的設定檔

vagrant init generic/rocky8

執行後 vagrant 會去下載這個 box,並產生一個 Vagrantfile 的設定檔
將設定檔稍作修改後如下

# -*- mode: ruby -*-
# vi: set ft=ruby :

# All Vagrant configuration is done below. The "2" in Vagrant.configure
# configures the configuration version (we support older styles for
# backwards compatibility). Please don't change it unless you know what
# you're doing.
Vagrant.configure("2") do |config|
  # The most common configuration options are documented and commented below.
  # For a complete reference, please see the online documentation at
  # https://docs.vagrantup.com.

  # Every Vagrant development environment requires a box. You can search for
  # boxes at https://vagrantcloud.com/search.
  config.vm.box = "generic/rocky8"
  config.vm.define = "server"

  # Disable automatic box update checking. If you disable this, then
  # boxes will only be checked for updates when the user runs
  # `vagrant box outdated`. This is not recommended.
  # config.vm.box_check_update = false

  # Create a forwarded port mapping which allows access to a specific port
  # within the machine from a port on the host machine. In the example below,
  # accessing "localhost:8080" will access port 80 on the guest machine.
  # NOTE: This will enable public access to the opened port
  config.vm.network "forwarded_port", guest: 22, host: 2222

  # Create a forwarded port mapping which allows access to a specific port
  # within the machine from a port on the host machine and only allow access
  # via 127.0.0.1 to disable public access
  # config.vm.network "forwarded_port", guest: 80, host: 8080, host_ip: "127.0.0.1"

  # Create a private network, which allows host-only access to the machine
  # using a specific IP.
  config.vm.network "private_network", ip: "192.168.33.10"

  # Create a public network, which generally matched to bridged network.
  # Bridged networks make the machine appear as another physical device on
  # your network.
  config.vm.network "public_network"

  # Share an additional folder to the guest VM. The first argument is
  # the path on the host to the actual folder. The second argument is
  # the path on the guest to mount the folder. And the optional third
  # argument is a set of non-required options.
  config.vm.synced_folder "./data", "/vagrant_data"

  # Provider-specific configuration so you can fine-tune various
  # backing providers for Vagrant. These expose provider-specific options.
  # Example for VirtualBox:
  #
  config.vm.provider "virtualbox" do |vb|
    # Display the VirtualBox GUI when booting the machine
    vb.gui = false

    # Customize the amount of memory on the VM:
    vb.memory = "4096"
    vb.cpus = 2
    vb.name = "server"
  end
  #
  # View the documentation for the provider you are using for more
  # information on available options.

  # Enable provisioning with a shell script. Additional provisioners such as
  # Ansible, Chef, Docker, Puppet and Salt are also available. Please see the
  # documentation for more information about their specific syntax and use.
  # config.vm.provision "shell", inline: <<-SHELL
  #   apt-get update
  #   apt-get install -y apache2
  # SHELL
end

config.vm.define = "server"
設定執行 vagrant status 時顯示的 VM 名稱

config.vm.network "forwarded_port", guest: 22, host: 2222
設定轉發連結埠,連線 localhost:2222 時將會連線到 VM 內部的 22 port

config.vm.network "private_network", ip: "192.168.33.10"
設定虛擬 IP 位置,除了 VirtualBox 的 10.0.2.15 網段以外再虛擬一張 192.168.33.10 的網卡

config.vm.network "public_network"
設定是否橋接到 Host network

config.vm.synced_folder "./data", "/vagrant_data"
設定資料夾對應,在 Vagrantfile 的同層目錄建立一個 data 資料夾以對應到 VM 內部的 /vagrant_data

vb.memory = "4096"vb.cpus = 2vb.name = "server"
設定 VM 記憶體、CPU 以及名稱

疑難排解

公司環境因 SSL 憑證問題無法下載 box

加上 –insecure 參數先將 box 抓下來就可以了

vagrant box add --insecure generic/rocky8

或是在 Vagrant 加上

config.vm.box_download_insecure =true

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